Percentage of population aged 15 years and over who can both read and write with understanding a short simple statement on his/her everyday life.From the data provided by the UNESCO Institute for Statistics, last updated on October 2015 we observe that around the world (without China), adult literacy rate is higher in men than women. The data collected is the percentage of the population older than 15 years old who can read and write. There is a significant difference of more than 10% between genders in Least Developed countries, Sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia and the Middle East. Only in East Asia, Central and Eastern Europe/Citizenship and Immigaration Canada (CEE/CIS ) and America, the gap becomes smaller, both genders literacy rate is above 88% of the national population.
Again, the number of males that complete secondary studies is greater than females and the difference is greater in Least Develop countries than more develop ones like Europe and Canada. It is interesting however, to notice that the Latin America violates the pattern for having more females than males graduating from secondary school, 63% female graduates versus 54% male graduates. Also an attention grabber it secondary completion in all continents it greater in urban areas the rural, probably because there are more schools and transportation routes available than in rural areas where people tend to be more dispersed and its harder to transport. The difference between residences changes between 20% and 30% and more students graduate from urban areas than rural. The highest difference is 30% in East Asia and Pacific. Sometimes living in the city or near an urban area suggests a more affluent background, which would explain why the richest population has a much higher rate of secondary completion than the poorest population. Even in the Least Develop countries, with poorest areas, more men complete their education than women. When we see that males have a higher rate of graduation from school it makes sense why men around the world account for higher literacy rates.
Also from UNICEF Global databases of 2016 based on MICS, DHS and other national household surveys and in collaboration with the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED), the last graph tells us the percentage of the number of children in lower secondary school age who are not enrolled in primary or secondary school. The third graph may also suggest why more males than females know how to read and write because more women are not enrolled at school, primary or secondary level than men. The numbers remain higher in Least Developed nations while developed nations numbers are closer to zero, in other words a majority of their population receives the basic education level. This might be due to the fact that Europe offers its citizens cheap if not free public education. The graphs continue to show differences between urban and rural areas and poorest and richest status. Children in rural and urban areas who are not enrolled in school differ the following way; in Sub Saharan Africa rural reaches 33% of children not enrolled in school compared to 16% in urban areas, there is a 10% difference in the Middle East and Northern Africa, 8% difference in south asia, and 6% in East Asia.
Urban areas are always at a lower percentage meaning that more children attend school in urbana areas. And the different between poorest and richest areas are huge, except for Europe and Canada that is only a 3% difference, and lack of evidence for Latin America and the Caribbean, the rest of the continents differ between 18% in East Asia and Pacific and 35% in South Asia. There is a higher number of rich children enrolled at school than poorest children. Children in urban areas and have greater income are more likely to be enrolled in school, unlike people living in rural areas and/or who poorest economic stability. Rural areas might not have a lot of schools available so the few that there are, it is harder for families with lower incomes to get to places when they might not be able to afford it or to get to the schools because maybe they live so isolated from society that they do not have roads of communication connecting their house to the school.
The following factors might influence the trends:
If classified as poorer families they are earn less than the average middle class workers. do not have a stable job that can provide for their families, living situation and/or education.
We observe a pattern between lower income families and rural areas so we might be able to assume that poorest families are settled in rural areas.
Gender inequality in the labor force has decreased but is still present.
With that said, if parents are unemployed which might be due to being uneducated, and they live in a rural area where they can cultivate food, parents are more likely to have them help at the house than send to school. Maybe if they didn’t receive an education themselves they do not understand the value in sending their children to school and/or are not aware of the opportunities it may bring about.
However if they do believe education is a priority, the graphs show that if they have 1 boy they would send the boy to school before they would send a girl, they might find more security in investing on a boys education and everything that it encompasses like materials and transportation than a girl when the gender gap in the labor force still remains.
*China is not taken into account in the graphs
**Urban, Rural, Richest and Poorest information in Latin America is not taken into account in the graphs